In the nineteenth century, under the Russian administration, the city rapidly industrialized and became one of the centers of industrial development in Poland. The population of the city has increased considerably and has also attracted German immigrants and a large Jewish population.
In 1918, when Poland regained its independence, Łódź became the most important textile center in Europe. Łódź has the largest percentage of Jewish population among cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants throughout Europe. During the Second World War, the city was partly destroyed by the German army, under the control of the Generalplan Ost, like other Polish towns. The Lodz jewish ghetto is the first large ghetto instituted by the Nazis since April 1940. Łódź lost 420,000 inhabitants, deported to the death camps, including 300,000 Jews.